Neonicotinoids and in particular dinotefuran metabolize in the body of non-human mammals and thus prolong their duration of action. The main metabolic pathways of dinotefuran involve N-demethylation, nitroreduction, N-methylene hydroxylation and amine cleavage reactions. The dinotefuran metabolites comprise the compounds described by Simon-Delso et al. (Systemic insecticides (neonicotinoids and fipronil): trends, uses, mode of action and metabolites, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 2015, 22:5-34) and by Ford K A and Casida J E (Unique and common metabolites of thiamethoxam, clothianidin, and dinotefuran in mice, Chem. Res. Toxicol., 2006, 19:1549-1556; Neonicotinoid metabolism: compounds, substituents, pathways, enzymes, organisms, and relevance, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2011, 59:2923-2931) and FAO dinotefuran (http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/agphome/documents/PestsPesticides/JMPR/Evaluation12/Dinotefuran.pdf). In particular, the dinotefuran metabolites include, without limitation, N-desmethyl dinotefuran (2-nitro-1-(tetrahydro-3-furylmethyl)guanidine), DIN-NNO, DIN-dm-NNO, DIN-NNH 2
, 1-methyl-3-(tetrahydro-3-furylmethyl)guanidine, 3-(tetrahydro-3-furylmethyl)guanidine, 1-methyl-3-(tetrahydro-3-furylmethyl)urea, 3-(tetrahydro-3-furylmethyl)urea, 2-hydroxy-dinotefuran, 4-hydroxydinotefuran, 1,3-diazinane aminocarbinol, DIN-b (derivative of DIN-dm), DIN-e (guanidine derivative of DIN-a), DIN-f (guanidine derivative of DIN-b), DIN-g (derivative of DIN-5-OH), DIN-h (desmethyl-g), DIN-I (nitroso derivative of DIN-g), DIN-j (nitroso derivative of DIN-h), DIN-k (guanidine derivative of DIN-h), tetrahydrofuran carboxaldehyde (3-furfural), tetrahydrofuran alcohol (3-furfuryl alcohol), 3-tetrahydrofurancarboxylic acid, 4-hydroxy-3-tetrahydrofuranzcarboxylic acid, tetrahydrofuran-3-ylmethylamine, 1-[4-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)butyl]-3-methyl-2-nitroguanidine, and 3-hydroxydinotefuran.